Working Group 1 – System Design and Nanofabrication

WG1 Leader:

Ronen Rapaport (Israel)

WG1 Co-Leader:

Vesna Vasic (Serbia)

The Action will focus on molecular engineering and on hybrid combinations of inorganic/organic, semiconducting/metallic or metallic/metallic nanomaterials. Top-down and bottom-up fabrication of novel well-defined nano-systems and the synthesis of new promising molecular systems are targeted. Systems under investigation are group IV and II-VI nanocrystals, III-V compounds, specifically designed organic dyes, oligomers and polymers, carbon allotropes, Au/Ag colloidal particles, and tailored layered, core-shell, or bimetallic nanostructures in different shapes. The different constituents and combinations of the constituents will be provided to WG 2 for investigation and will be further optimized based on the results.

Capability Map – Lithography

Technique

Resolution

Area

Comments

Responsible (University)

e-beam lithography

10 nm
50 nm

25 µm2
wafer scale 4 inch / 2D

multilayer lithography - 3 layers

Fleischer (Tübingen)

Giessen (Stuttgart)

 

10 nm

1 cm2

multilayer and continuous exposition

Baudrion (Troyes)

UV interference

0.3 µm

wafer scale

 

 

extreme UV – PSI

 

 

 

 

ion-beam lithography

10 nm

40 nm

1–10 µm / 3D

Dual Beam (e-, Ga)

Tittonen (Aalto)

Ortolani (Rome)

Fleischer (Tübingen)

optical lithography

1 µm

wafer

 

Fleischer (Tübingen)

 

1 µm

wafer

nano-imprint available on same system

Baudrion (Troyes)

two-photon lithography

1 µm

wafer

3D polymer structures

Buadrion (Troyes)

Capability Map – Self-Assembly

Technique

Resolution

Area

Comments

Responsible (University)

nanosphere lithography

30 nm

cm2

Fleischer (Tübingen)

Zahn (Chemnitz)

50 nm

cm2

Baudrion (Troyes)

DNA hybridization assisted assembly lithography “programmed self-assembling”

10 nm

mm2

e.g. DNA

ferroelectric lithography

500 nm

µm2

precipitation assembly

50-100 nm

conjugated organic materials, oligomers or polymers

ion-beam stimulated self-assembly

tens of nm

cm2

metal nanocluster confinement on templates, metal nanowire arrays

Buatier (Genova)

micelles

2 nm

cm2

diblock-copolymers

10 nm

cm2

Fleischer (Tübingen)

Capability Map – Synthesis

Technique

Resolution

Area

Comments

Responsible (University)

semiconductor NPs

2 nm ± 10%
8 nm ± 10%

 

SnO2, CdS, ...

Monteiro (Lisbon)

Zahn (Chemnitz)

noble metal NPs

5-50 nm
10 nm ± 20%

 

Au, Ag, Cu
rods, prisms, cubes
chemical reduction or gamma irradiation

Ferreira (Lisbon)

Vodnik (Belgrade)

 

2-50 nm ± 20%

 

Au, Ag, Al

Baudrion (Troyes)

dielectric NPs

2-20 nm

 

ZnO NPs, nanorods, nanowires

Baudrion (Troyes)

size-selected clusters

2-60 000 atoms ± 5%
(± 1% size)

 

metals and semiconductors

Palmer (Birmingham)

Zahn (Chemnitz)

carbon nanotubes (CVD)

nm

cm2

vertical (PECVD) & horizontal (gas flow) growth of single tubes, forests, electrodes

Fleischer (Tübingen)

whiskers

Ø100-200 nm, to 10 µm length

cm2

CdS, CdSe, Si

Bortchagovsky (Kiev)

(CdS, CdSe - Grynko)

(Si - Stadnyk)

graphene

 

 

 

Sopanen / Riikonen (Aalto)

Capability Map – Deposition

Technique

Resolution

Area

Comments

Responsible (University)

pulsed laser deposition (PLD) (on surfaces and ablation in solution)

10 nm

cm2

film of NPs, Au, Ag

Trusso (IPCF-Messina)

molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)

layers – 1 ML

3D

Si, metals
self-aligned QDs

 

atomic layer deposition (ALD)

1 ML precision

 

conformal

Tittonen (Aalto)

CVD/LPCVD/PECVD

10 nm – 1 µm

 

aSi, pSi, SiOx, Si3N4, Ge, nanowires with Au nanoseeds

Fleischer (Tübingen)

Tittonen (Aalto)

PVD (e-beam or Joule evaporation)

 

 

Au, Ag, Al, Ni, Co, Cr, TiO2, SiO2, ITO, CuPC, AlQ3

Baudrion (Troyes)

electrochemical deposition

1 monolayer (UPD)
10 nm metal and CPs films
nm-scale NPs

µm2 – m2

noble metals, metals, conducting polymers

Ferreira (Lisbon)

thermal evaporation (sputtering)

50-200 nm

5-10 µm2

CdSe, ITO, Au, Ti, Fe, Co, Ni...

Bortchagovsky (Kiev) (Grynko, Stadnyk)

Fleischer (Tübingen)

 

 

 

TiO2, SiO2, ITO, ZnO

Baudrion (Troyes)

thermal and electron beam evaporation

5-200 nm

cm2

Au, Ag, Ti, Cr, ...

Fleischer (Tübingen)

metal-assisted chemical etching

10 nm - 1 µm

wafer

semiconductor nanowires, metal clusters

Irrera (CNR-IPCF Messina)

liquid-phase deposition

 

 

flakes of polymers, MoS2

 

FIB-assisted etching

 

 

Si nanowires

Tittonen (Aalto)

MBE of organics

 

 

organics

Zahn (Chemnitz)

Langmuir-Blodgett

1 ML

cm2

organics

Bortchagovsky (Kiev)

(Kazantseva)

oxidation

no lateral resolution

wafer

oxide layers on Si

Fleischer (Tübingen)

Capability Map - Replication, etching, cutting

Technique

Resolution

Area

Comments

Responsible (University)

Replication

 

 

 

 

electroforming

10 nm

cm2

SnO2, CdS, ...

Bortchagovsky (Kiev) (Grynko)

Etching

 

 

 

 

wet chemical etching

depth: microns

wafer

KOH, NaOH, acids, HF, ...

Fleischer (Tübingen)

reactive ion etching

depth: microns

wafer

SF6, CHF3, CF4, O2, ...

Fleischer (Tübingen)

 

depth: microns

wafer

SF6, O2, CHF3, ...

Baudrion (Troyes)

physical argon ion milling

depth: 100 nm

cm2

 

Fleischer (Tübingen)

Wafer cutting

 

 

 

 

wafer saw

 

6" wafer

 

Fleischer (Tübingen)